Matthias (24 February 1557 – 20 March 1619), a member of the House of Habsburg, reigned as Holy Roman Emperor from 1612, King of Hungary and Croatia from 1608 (as Matthias II) and King of Bohemia from 1611. When the Emperor died in 1125 the electors, rejecting the hereditary principle, chose Lothar, duke of Saxony, to succeed him.
), the first Emperor of Austria (Kaiser von Österreich), ruling from 1804 to 1835, so later he was named the one and only Doppelkaiser (double emperor) in history.
He was elected King of Germany at Frankfurt on 4 March 1152 and crowned in Aachen on 9 March 1152.
With his wife, Maria Theresa, he was the founder of the Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty. Charles’ grandfather and predecessor, Maximilian, had been prevented from going to Rome for his coronation and so Pope Julius II gave him the title ‘Emperor-elect of the Romans’. Theologians, lawyers, popes, ecclesiastics, rulers, rebels like Arnold of Brescia and Cola di Rienzo, literary figures like Dante and Petrarch, and the practical men, members of the high nobility, on whom the emperors relied for support, all saw the empire in a different light and had their own ideas of its origin, function, and justification.
In 1116, with his elder brother Frederick II, duke of Swabia, he was left by Henry as regent of Germany.
The papacy ’s close ties to the Franks and its growing estrangement from the Eastern Roman Empire led to Pope Leo III ’s crowning of Charlemagne as “Roman” emperor in 800.
The reunited Empire would not last.
He succeeded to the imperial throne and that of Bohemia when his father died.
Some historians say the Carolingian Empire was the start of the Holy Roman Empire.
Charles became Holy Roman Emperor in 1519 defeating Francis I and Henry VIII in the election, after the death of his Habsburg grandfather, Maximilian. Before Henry II could arrive, however, Otto III died of fever, leaving no heir. During his reign in Aquitaine, Louis was charged with the defence of the Empire's southwestern frontier. Charlemagne reached the height of his power in 800 when he was crowned "emperor" by Pope Leo III on Christmas Day at Old St. Peter's Basilica. He was never crowned by the Pope, which would have secured him the title of Holy Roman Emperor.
He ruled over extensive domains in Central, Western, and Southern Europe, and the Spanish colonies in the Americas and Asia.
In 1519, Charles became Holy Roman Emperor and Archduke of Austria. He got the name Barbarossa from the northern Italian cities he attempted to rule: Barbarossa means "red beard" in Italian; in German, he was known as Kaiser Rotbart, which has the same meaning. With domestic affairs settled, Otto II would focus his attention from 980 onward to annexing the whole of Italy into the Empire. A member of the House of Wittelsbach, Charles was notably the first person not born of the House of Habsburg to become emperor in over three centuries, which proves the fact that the Title was purely elective not hereditary. Conrad continued to build the Church as a center for imperial power, preferring to appoint church bishops over secular lords to important posts across the Empire. On 2 September 1347, Charles was crowned King of Bohemia.
There was no permanent army, no established system of Imperial taxation, and no really effective means of enforcing decisions made at the Diets.
Suffice to say that the self-interest of the electors, whether motivated by greed, ambition, fear or genuine belief in his cause, eventually resulted in the unanimous choice of Charles and a consequent deepening of the enmity between the new emperor and Francis I. Henry VIII sent a message of congratulation to the new emperor and reminded Charles of the long friendship between England and both the Low Countries and Spain.
When his rebellion failed to gain the support of Germany's aristocracy, Henry II was forced to abandon his claims to the throne and to allow Otto III's mother Theophanu to serve as regent until her death in 991.
He is usually known as Berengar of Friuli, since he ruled the March of Friuli from 874 until at least 890, but he had lost control of the region by 896. The son of Frederick I, duke of Swabia, and grandson of Emperor Henry IV, Conrad was appointed duke of Franconia by his uncle, Emperor Henry V, in 1115. Charles IV of Luxemburg - Holy Roman Emperor - 1346-1378. Cet avis ne saurait engager la SECF à quelque titre que ce soit.
Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I - 1493-1519. A member of the Ottonian dynasty, Otto III was the only son of the Emperor Otto II and his wife Theophanu. His campaign was based on the arguments that, if elected, Charles would become too powerful, something that the German princes would see as a threat; that it was undesirable for one family to continuously hold the title; that he had friendly relations with some electors and indications of support from the Pope.
Through his father, he was a Bosonid, but through his mother, a Carolingian. He consolidated his power by cultivating personal and political ties with the Catholic Church. The position evolved into an elected monarchy, but the emperor elect (imperator electus) was until the 15th century required to be crowned by the Pope before assuming the imperial title. Francis I continued his leading role as an opponent of Napoleonic France in the Napoleonic Wars, and suffered several more defeats after Austerlitz. Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian II - 1564-1576. Forced into quiet retirement, he died of natural causes in January 888, just a few weeks after his deposition.
In the long-time struggle for the German throne upon the death of Emperor Henry VI between the Hohenstaufen and Welf dynasties, he was the first German king to be assassinated. Crowned as Emperor, Otto III put down the Roman rebellion and installed his cousin as Pope Gregory V, the first Pope of German descent. Henry III - Holy Roman Emperor - 1046-1056.
Louis the German - Louis II of Germany - 855-875.
When Gregory V died in 999, Otto III installed Sylvester II as the new Pope. The other contenders for the Imperial throne were Francis I of France and, less of a threat, Henry VIII of England and Frederick of Saxony, himself one of the electors. Henry VII of Luxemburg - Holy Roman Emperor - 1308-1313. Henry VI - Holy Roman Emperor - 1191-1197. (See Chapters 5 and 16 in 'Charles V:Duty and Dynasty - The Emperor and his Changing World').
Lothar II - Holy Roman Emperor - 1133-1137.
He was the last ruler to issue a capitulary in the Carolingian tradition. Otto II (955 – December 7, 983), called the Red (Rufus), was Holy Roman Emperor from 973 until his death in 983. He created the Mesta, an association of sheep farmers in the central plain, but debased the coinage to finance his claim to the German crown. He was the first emperor of the House of Luxembourg. From 1084 until his forced abdication in 1105, he was also referred to as the King of the Romans and Holy Roman Emperor.
In 1804, he had founded the Austrian Empire and became Francis I (Franz I.
His victory allowed him to exclude the Bavarian line of Ottonians from the line of Imperial succession. Joseph was crowned King of Hungary at the age of nine in 1687, and King in Germany at the age of eleven in 1690. In the end Frederick declined to become a candidate.
On the last point the contemporary Florentine diplomat and writer Francesco Guicciardini commented that Francis ‘deceived himself more every day’. He is Timeform's highest rated 2YO ever by Danehill.
At the age of three, he was crowned King of Sicily as a co-ruler with his mother, Constance of Hauteville, the daughter of Roger II of Sicily. To resolve this conflict, the Byzantine princess Theophanu married his son, Otto II, in April 972.
Finally, whereas none of the earlier emperors from Otto I had assumed the imperial title until actually crowned by the pope in Rome, after Charles V none was emperor in this sense, though all laid claim to the imperial dignity as if they had been duly crowned as well as elected. But this was in no way a modern state with a central government.
Holy Roman Emperor Charles VII - 1742-1745. Wenceslaus was deposed in 1400 as King of the Romans, but continued to rule as Bohemian king until his death. He was initially co-ruler with his brother Carloman I. Carloman's sudden death in 771 under unexplained circumstances left Charlemagne as the undisputed ruler of the Frankish Kingdom. The key events during his reign were the contest with the Ottoman Empire, whose great advance into Central Europe began in the 1520s, and the Protestant Reformation, which resulted in several wars of religion. From 1728 until 1737 he was Duke of Lorraine.
His conquests brought him into conflict with the Byzantine Empire and with the Muslims of the Fatimid Caliphate, who both held territories in southern Italy. The oldest son of Pepin the Short and Bertrada of Laon, Charlemagne became king in 768 following the death of his father. Rudolf's legacy has traditionally been viewed in three ways: an ineffectual ruler whose mistakes led directly to the Thirty Years' War; a great and influential patron of Northern Mannerist art; and a devotee of occult arts and learning which helped seed the scientific revolution. He was the last emperor before Otto the Great was crowned in 962, after a 38-year interregnum. In 1186 he was married to Constance of Sicily, the posthumous daughter of the Norman king Roger II of Sicily. Henry V (11 August 1086 – 23 May 1125) was King of Germany (from 1099 to 1125) and Holy Roman Emperor (from 1111 to 1125), the fourth and last ruler of the Salian dynasty.
Frederick therefore descended from the two leading families in Germany, making him an acceptable choice for the Empire's prince-electors. He was a son of Emperor Francis I and his wife, Empress Maria Theresa, thus the brother of Marie Antoinette.
He greatly expanded the Ottonian dynasty's custom of employing clergy as counter-weights against secular nobles. Louis the Blind (c. 880 – 28 June 928) was the king of Provence from 11 January 887, King of Italy from 12 October 900, and briefly Holy Roman Emperor, as Louis III, between 901 and 905. Two years later, the term sacrum ("holy") first appeared in a document in connection with his Empire.
The two empires would remain allies until the 18th century.
The Empire quickly fell apart after his death, never to be restored, with the Empire splintering into five separate successor kingdoms. Henry IV - Holy Roman Emperor - 1084-1105.
Albrecht Durer (1524), British Museum.  The rulers who were crowned as Emperors in the West before 962 were as follows: There was no emperor in the west between 924 and 962. Origins of the empire and sources of imperial ideas, https://www.britannica.com/place/Holy-Roman-Empire, HistoryWorld - History of Holy Roman Empire, Deutsches Historisches Museum - “Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation 962-1806”, The History Learning Site - Holy Roman Empire, Holy Roman Empire - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Holy Roman Empire - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). So too did Francis.
He was the third Bohemian and third German monarch of the Luxembourg dynasty. Charles did not have sufficient ready money (nor did the other contenders) but he did have access to the German banking houses, particularly Jacob Fugger and the Welser of Augsburg. This meant that Charles would have to be elected in a more open contest, since any commitments made by the electors to Maximilian, however expensive to the ageing Emperor, were now null and void. Henry II in 1004 aided Jaromír, Duke of Bohemia against the Poles, definitively incorporating the Duchy of Bohemia into the Holy Roman Empire.
He continued his father's work to unify all German tribes into a single kingdom and greatly expanded the king's powers at the expense of the aristocracy. Since his father had rebelled against two previous emperors, the younger Henry was often in exile.
The papacy’s close ties to the Franks and its growing estrangement from the Eastern Roman Empire led to Pope Leo III’s crowning of Charlemagne as “Roman” emperor in 800.
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